Anthropological Analyses

These tools were designed to record anthropological information not from literature but directly while assessing human remains. They can be accessed for each individual via the Stratigraphic unit‘s landing page by clicking the Tools button. The following methods are provided for anthropological analyses:

Sex Estimation

Sex estimation on the method published by Ferembach et al. 1979 (D. Ferembach, I. Schwidetzky, and M. Stloukal, Empfehlungen für die Alters- und Geschlechtsdiagnose am Skelett. Homo 30, 1979, 1-32).

For this method, features of the bones, primarily in the skull and pelvis, are examined. In addition to the features proposed in Ferembach et al. possibilities to assess the margo supramastoideus, os sacrum, and the robustness of the humerus and femur were supplemented. Therefore, the following features can be accessed:

Skull

  • Glabella (W = 3)
  • Arcus superciliaris (W = 2)
  • Tuber frontalis and parietalis (W = 2)
  • Inclinatio frontalis (W = 1)
  • Processus mastoideus (W = 3)
  • Relief of planum nuchale (W = 3)
  • Protuberantia occipitalis externa (W = 2)
  • Processus zygomaticus (W = 3)
  • Os zygomaticum (W = 2)
  • Crista supramastoideum (W = 2)
  • Margo supraorbitalis (W = 1)
  • Shape of orbita (W = 1)

Mandible

  • Overall appearance (W = 3)
  • Mentum (W = 2)
  • Angulus (W = 1)
  • Margo inferior - M2 (W = 1)
  • Angle (W = 1)

Pelvis

  • Sulcus praeauricularis (W = 3)
  • Incisura ischiadica major (W = 3)
  • Angulus pubis (W = 2)
  • Arc composé (W = 2)
  • Os coxae (W = 2)
  • Foramen obturatum (W = 2)
  • Corpus ossis ischii (W = 2)
  • Crista iliaca (W = 1)
  • Fossa iliaca (W = 1)
  • Pelvis major (W = 1)
  • Auricular area (W = 1)
  • Sacrum (W = 1)
  • Fossa acetabuli (W = 1)

Robusticity

  • Humerus (W = 1)
  • Femur (W = 1)

Depending on the degree of expression, the following categories with assigned value (W) are given:

  • female -2
  • likely female -1
  • indifferent 0
  • likely male 1
  • male 2
  • not preserved (no assigned value)

The product is then divided by the sum of the weighting values used. The result is called sex ratio and can take values between -2 and 2. The following types are assigned:

  • -2 to -0.7: female
  • -0.69 to -0.31: likely female
  • -0.3 to 0.3: indifferent (sex determination not possible)
  • 0.3 to 0.69: likely male
  • 0.70 to 2: male